EPICTETUS, 55 A.D.
The essence of Epictetus's psychology is revealed by two of his most frequently quoted statements:
“We are disturbed not by events, but by the views which we take of them.”
“I must die. Must I then die lamenting? I must be put in chains. Must I then also lament? I must go into exile. Does any man then hinder me from going with smiles and cheerfulness and contentment?”
WILLIAM JAMES - "Father of Psychology"
Focusing on the positive as a tool for success is not a new idea. William James, who is sometimes thought of as the father of psychology, was an early proponent of the concept that it is how you learn to play the cards you've been dealt, rather than the hand itself, that determines the value of your participation in the game.
ALBERT BANDURA'S SELF-EFFICACY
"...the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations.” Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. See more information on this topic at: http://des.emory.edu/mfp/self-efficacy.html
ERIKSON'S 4TH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
Industry Versus Inferiority (Competence)
Erikson believes that the fourth psychosocial crisis is handled,
for better or worse, during what he calls the “school
age,” presumably up to and possibly including some of
junior high school. Here the child learns to master the more
formal skills of life:
(1) relating with peers according to rules
(2) progressing from free play to play that may be elaborately
structured by rules and may demand formal teamwork, such as
baseball, and mastering social studies, reading, arithmetic.
Homework is a necessity, and the need for self-discipline
This is the time for experimentation and the development of the rules, beliefs, ideals, and values that become the basic principles for decision-making. If Healthy rules are not learned, then Unhealthy ones will be.
RELATED TOPICS & LINKS:
- Rational Emotive Therapy – Albert Ellis
- Cognitive Therapy – Aaron Beck
- Locus of Control & Learned Helplessness – Martin Seligman
- Negative Mood Regulation – Catanzaro, Kirsch
- Attribution Theory – Keenan
- Personality Development
- Psychological Motives and Self-Esteem
- Modeling Behavior
Research on the Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Children and the Importance of Self-regulation Training
"Prevention Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Effective for Treating Trauma Symptoms in Children and Teens"
CDC Online Newsroom. 9 Sept. 2008
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/media/pressrel/2008/r080909.htm
Macklem, G. L.
Practicioner’s Guide to Emotion Regulation in School-Aged Children.
New York: Springer Science & Business Media, Inc., 2008.
Tice, D., Bratslavsky, E., and Baumeister, R.
"Emotional distress regulation takes precedence over impulse control: If you feel bad, do it!"
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80-1 (2001): 53-67.
Goldstein, S., and Brooks, R. B.
"Why study resilience?" Handbook of Resilience in Children.
New York: Springer Science & Business Media, Inc., 2005.
"Self-regulation and school readiness."
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Champaign, IL. 2003
Masten, A. S., and Coatsworth, J. D.
"The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children."
American Psychologist, 53 (1998): 205-220.